January 6, 2010

Introduction to Linguistic


Is the study of meaning. Divided in lexical meaning and structural meaning.
Lexical meaning, refers to the meaning of words, which is an agreement of the community. Ex: bycycle, it’s not a human or animal, but it’s a thing and this is called semantic properties of word. Ex: Grandfather, the word related to human, adult, married, and the gender is a male. This is also called component analysis

Three concept the meaning of a word:

  1. Form of expression, deal with how a word is pronounced or expressed
  2. Concept, information on someone head or minds
  3. Referent, related to the real world out of language to which a word refer to

This is called semantic triangle, the relation between (word) and (referent) is not direct cause there is no obligatory relation between a word and what it refers to and this is called Arbitrary Relation. Ex: (Amis) Javanese refers to something fishy, but Sundanese refers to something sweet. Lexical meaning also deal with 2 kinds of meaning/Jenis Makna:

  1. Denotation, when the words is meant to be the real world as it refers to, Ex: Cat, refer to a 4 legged animal
  2. Connotation, when the same word (cat) is meant to a person that he doesn’t like, other kinds of meaning/Relasi Makna are;
  1. Homonym, when they have the same sound meaning, Ex: two n’ too, same sound but very different meaning
  2. Synonym, when they have almost the same meaning, Ex: Father n’ daddy
  3. Antonym, when 2 words have opposite meaning, Ex: Fat n’ Thin
  4. Polisemi, kata yg have some makna yg b’hubungan, Ex: (sumber) makna 1st yaitu t4 keluar air dan 2nd berarti asal
  5. Hiponimi, b’kaitan dg peliputan makna spesifik dlm makna generic, Ex: beo, jalak, n’ perkutut berhiponimi dgn burung
  6. Meronimi, mirip dgn hiponimi cause relasi maknanya bersifat hierarkis, namun tidak menyiratkan pelibatan searah tetapi keseluruhan, Ex: atap bermeronimi dgn rumah
  • Makna Asosiatif, asosiasi yg muncul dalam benak seseorang jika mendengar kata tertentu, Ex:villa means rumah istirahat di luar kota
  • Makna Afektif, berkaitn dengan perasaan seseorang jika mendengar/membaca kata tertentu, Ex: jujur, sopan menimbulkan makna afektif yg positif
  • Makna Situatif, kata yg mempunyai fungsi deiktis, Ex: (disini,disana) means ket tempat sedangkan (lusa,minggu depan) means nomina ket waktu
  • Makna Etimologis, b’kaitan dgn asal usul kata n’ perubahan makna dari aspek sejarah kata, Ex:(sarjana) means cerdi,cakap now in bhsa ind. Maknanya menyempit mjadi gelar S1

Deal with speaker meaning, in other words, pragmatic studies utterance meaning rather than sentence meaning. Personative may be uttered explicity or implicity, Ex:request for requesting n’ promise for promising. Constative may be defined as utterance used for stating the truth. Ex: “the sun- sets in the west” doesn’t imply another meaning

  1. Utterance Meaning, 3 act interratedly in communication, they are: perform an act of saying something, something to commit by saying something n’ the effect of saying something, Ex: “it is cold” this is maybe a request to the listener to switch off the AC, depends on the perlocutionary act (effect of saying something)
  2. Categories of Illocutionary act, 5 function are:
  1. Assertive, commit the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition, Ex: suggesting, complaining, stating
  2. Directives, produce some effects trough action by the hearer, Ex: ordering, commanding, requesting
  3. Commissives, commit the speaker to some future action, Ex: promising, offering
  4. Expressive, have function of expressing or making known, Ex: thanking, congratulating, blaming
  5. Declaration, illocutions whose successful performance, Ex: resigning, dismissing
  1. Communication Principles, have 2 principles in communication:
  1. Cooperative principle, have 4 maxims, quantity (anak gadis saya sekarang sudah punya pacar), quality (fakultas sastra ada di jl Hayam Wuruk), (setahu saya, kalo tidak salah dengar), relevan (kamu mau minum apa?yg hangat2 saja), n’ manner (mau minum kopi apa teh?), used to applied by speakers in conversation to make communication run well
  2. Politeness Principle, have 6 maxims, tact, generosity, approbation, modesty, agreement, sympathy, make com. run well besides, the relationship keep smooth
  1. Deixis, refers to a technical term used for pointing something by using language. The kinds are: person (tunggal:aku,saya), spatial (ruang Ex: disini,disitu), and temporal (waktu) deixis Ex:hari ini bayar besok gratis
4 maxim menurut grice:
  • kuantitas: penutur give kontribusi yg seckpnya kpda lawan penuturnya, hedge yaitu keterbatasan peutur dalam m'ungkapkan informasi
  • kualitas: penutur harus m'atakan yg sebenarnya
  • relevan: penutur give kontribusi yg relevan dgn situasi pembicaraan
  • cara: penutur harus berbicara lgsg dan lugas serta tidak berlebihan
  1. lokusioner: dasar tindakan dlm suatu ajaran
  2. ilokusioner: tindakan yg menyertai tindakan lokusioner
  3. perlokusioner: pengaruh dari pertuturan ilokusioner dan lokusioner
"saya berjanji akan menjagamu selamanya" mrupakan pertuturan lokusioner, sdgkan ilokusioner adalah tujuan dari pertuturan tsb, dan perlokusioner adalah pengaruhnya. (NB:contoh bikin sendiri ya!!!)
  • referensi: hub antar unsur luar bahasa yg ditunjuk oleh unsur bahs dgn lambang yg dipakai
  • inferensi: pengetahuan + yg dipakai oleh mitra bicara u/ memahami apa yg tidak diungkapkan scr explisit dalam ujaran
  • ref tak tarif: tidak tentu (seseorang)
  • ref takrif: ref yg tentu (orang itu)
  • generik: mnekankan sesuatu yg umum (orang suka makan sate)

Studies language in relation with the factors, such as sex, social status, region, situation ,religion

  1. Language Varieties, shows how the nonlinguistic factors can affect language, may reflect the speakers or users of the language and the goal of using language.
  1. Dialects, regional and social dialects, regional used by people from different regions of the same language n’ social used by people from different social groups of the same language which also called standard n non standard dialects.
    • Regional dialect can be divided into different regional dialect. A dialects is a language variation which can be characterized in term of its vocab, pronounciation, n’ grammatical construction. Ex: Javanese: solo, yogya, kebumen dialect
    • Social dialect, Ex: in Java there are priyayi n’ nonpriyayi, they use different styles, they used karma inggil, madya n’ ngoko
  2. Styles/Situation dialect, formal n’ informal style, this are associated with the situation when the language is used
  3. Slangs, words that used by specific group of people which are not openly used by common people. Ex: doku means uang
  4. Registers, refer to the language used for occupational purpose. News language is different from advertisement language. style n’ register are called situation dialects
  5. Jargons, used by different fields of study. Ex: phonology n’ morphology are jargons in Linguistic
  6. Code Switching, changing language to other language if speak with the person who are competence in the language different from their native language

Studies language production, comprehension, n’ acquisition.

  1. stu. lang. pro. In relation with the ability of human being in producing utterance or sentence to communicate to others. The speaker try to produce utterance conveying their concept which can be understood for the listener
  2. comprehension, understanding what the other speak about in order to give response in communication, Ex: a Javanese speaks to balinese who has never been exposed to Javanese, is just a noise for the listener
  3. Lang. Acquisition refers to how children acquire their first language they r exposed to. If exposed to javanese, they will be Javanese, there is possibility to be a bilingual child that they are exposed to 2 or more languages
  1. Theories of Language Acquisition
    • Children Acquiring Lang. by Imitation, the problem is they never produces the utterance that are exactly the same as the utterance produce by adults around them. Ex: when speaks Papa, they will produce papa
    • Children Acquiring by reinforcement, they get reinforcement gorm the adults when they produce correct form, Ex: “Nobody don’t like me”, No, say “Nobody Likes me”, it’s shows that children try to formulate their own sentences or utterances
    • Children Acquiring Language by Analogy, children construct their own language as the result of contacting with the adults, the way they construct their language can be characterized systematically, Ex: “I painted a red box”, children will say: “I see a red box”
  2. Stages in Language Acquisition, the three stages are:
  1. one word stage, single negative word, Ex: ‘no”
  2. first sentence stage, negative word added to beginning of sentence, Ex: “no want food”
  3. later sentence stage, negative element inserted between subject n’ predicate, Ex: “she no bite you”

Cooing Stage

Babbling Stage

One Word stage

Two Word Stage

Gesell (1940b n’ 1940c)

By 16 weeks

By 28 weeks

By 40 weeks

By 18 months

Bowley (1957;9ff)

By 5 months

Around 10 months

By 18 monts

Lenneberg (1966)

4 months

6-9 months

12-18 months

18-21 months

Illingworth (1967:166ff)

Around 4 months

Around 12 months

21-24 months

Menyuk (1975)

1-4 months

4-8 months

12- 18 months

18-24 months

Deich Hodges (1977:62ff)

By 6 months

Around 6 months

Around 12 months

Aitchinson (1983:89f)

Around 6 weeks

Around 6 months

Around 1 year

Around 18 months

Johnson (1984)

2-3 months

4-5 months

Around 12 months

18-20 months

There are 4 stages associated with ages, the last 2 age can be identified as linguistic stage since in those stage children can produce speech which can be characterized linguistically. They can produce one word like mama, apa, bye-bye etc

  1. Language Learning and Language Acquisition, L.A refers to the subconscious process of acquiring language (proses yg tidak qta sadari), it is done in informal situation n’ they acquire language from their parent or ather adults through their contact or communication. Otherwise, L.L refers to the process of conscious process of learning language. It’s usually done in formal education with a certain curriculum n’ syllabus, materials, time n’ place with certain teachers n’ instructions

· It can be concluded that L.L is the process of learning a second or foreign language which children have acquired their first or native language. Besides, in learning second language children use their experience in acquiring their first language to learn the second language

· The factors that influence the success of learning secong language are:

1. age, children are more advantageous learning a second language than adults in pronunciation, but adult arer more successful in learning grammar

2. affective factors, Ex:

· motivation, will be successful in getting the second language if have very high motivation

· self confidence, more self confidence more successful

· anxiety (rasa cemas), important for both learning the second language and acquiring the first language, Ex: have low anxiety in learning in the classroom, they will be more successful


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